SoC : System-On-a-Chip

System-on-a-chip (SoC) refers to integrating all components of an electronic system into a single integrated circuit (chip). A SoC can include the integration of:

  • Ready made sub-circuits (IP)
  • One or more microcontroller, microprocessor or DSP core(s)
  • Memory components
  • Sensors
  • Digital, Analog, or Mixed signal components
  • Timing sources, like oscillators and phase-locked loops
  • Voltage regulators and power management circuits
The blocks of SoC are connected by a special bus, such as the AMBA bus. DMA controllers are used for routing the data directly between external interfaces and memory, by-passing the processor core and thereby increasing the data throughput of the SoC. SoC is widely used in the area of embedded systems. SoCs can be fabricated by several technologies, like, Full custom, Standard cell, FPGA, etc. SoC designs are usually power and cost effective, and more reliable than the corresponding multi-chip systems. A programmable SoC is known as PSoC.

Advantages of SoC are:
  • Small size, reduction in chip count
  • Low power consumption
  • Higher reliability
  • Lower memory requirements
  • Greater design freedom
  • Cost effective
Design Flow

SoC consists of both hardware and software( to control SoC components). The aim of SoC design is to develop hardware and software in parallel. SoC design uses pre-qualified hardware, along with their software (drivers) which control them. The hardware blocks are put together using CAD tools; the software modules are integrated using a software development environment. The SoC design is then programmed onto a FPGA, which helps in testing the behavior of SoC. Once SoC design passes the testing it is then sent to the place and route process. Then it will be fabricated. The chips will be completely tested and verified.

VLSI Interview Questions - 6

1. Why is NAND gate preferred over NOR gate for fabrication?
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2. Which transistor has higher gain: BJT or MOSFET and why?
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3. Why PMOS and NMOS are sized equally in a transmission gates?
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4. What is SCR?
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5. In CMOS digital design, why is the size of PMOS is generally higher than that of the NMOS?
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6. What is slack?
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7. What is latch up?
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8. Why is the size of inverters in buffer design gradually increased? Why not give the output of a circuit to one large inverter?
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9. What is Charge Sharing? Explain the Charge Sharing problem while sampling data from a Bus?
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10. What happens to delay if load capacitance is increased?
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Complex Programmable Logic Device

A complex programmable logic device (CPLD) is a semiconductor device containing programmable blocks called macro cell, which contains logic implementing disjunctive normal form expressions and more specialized logic operations. CPLD has complexity between that of PALs and FPGAs. It can has up to about 10,000 gates. CPLDs offer very predictable timing characteristics and are therefore ideal for critical control applications.

Applications

  • CPLDs are ideal for critical, high-performance control applications.
  • CPLD can be used for digital designs which perform boot loader functions.
  • CPLD is used to load configuration data for an FPGA from non-volatile memory.
  • CPLD are generally used for small designs, for example, they are used in simple applications such as address decoding.
  • CPLDs are often used in cost-sensitive, battery-operated portable applications, because of its small size and low-power usage.
Architecture

A CPLD contains a bunch of programmable functional blocks (FB) whose inputs and outputs are connected together by a global interconnection matrix. The global interconnection matrix is reconfigurable, so that we can change the connections between the FBs. There will be some I/O blocks which allow us to connect CPLD to external world. The block diagram of architecture of CPLD is shown below.


The programmable functional block typically looks like the one shown below. There will be an array of AND gates which can be programed. The OR gates are fixed. But each manufacturer has their way of building the functional block. A registered output can be obtained by manipulating the feedback signals obtained from the OR ouputs.


CPLD Programming


The design is first coded in HDL (Verilog or VHDL), once the code is validated (simulated and synthesized). During synthesis the target device(CPLD model) is selected, and a technology-mapped net list is generated. The net list can then be fitted to the actual CPLD architecture using a process called place-and-route, usually performed by the CPLD company's proprietary place-and-route software. Then the user will do some verification processes. If every thing is fine, he will use the CPLD, else he will reconfigure it.

Introduction to Digital Logic Design

>> Introduction
>> Binary Number System
>> Complements
>> 2's Complement vs 1's Complement
>> Binary Logic
>> Logic Gates


Introduction

The fundamental idea of digital systems is to represent data in discrete form (Binary: ones and zeros) and processing that information. Digital systems have led to many scientific and technological advancements. Calculators, computers, are the examples of digital systems, which are widely used for commercial and business data processing. The most important property of a digital system is its ability to follow a sequence of steps to perform a task called program, which does the required data processing. The following diagram shows how a typical digital system will look like.


Representing the data in ones and zeros, i.e. in binary system is the root of the digital systems. All the digital system store data in binary format. Hence it is very important to know about binary number system. Which is explained below.

Binary Number System

The binary number system, or base-2 number system, is a number system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. The base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Owing to its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates, the binary system is used internally by all computers. Suppose we need to represent 14 in binary number system.
14 - 01110 - 0x24 + 1x23 + 1x22 + 1x21 + 0x20
similarly,
23 - 10111 - 1x24 + 0x23 + 1x22 + 1x21 + 1x20

Complements

In digital systems, complements are used to simplify the subtraction operation. There are two types of complements they are:
The r's Complement
The (r-1)'s Complement

Given:

  • N a positive number.
  • r base of the number system.
  • n number of digits.
  • m number of digits in fraction part.
The r's complement of N is defined as rn - N for N not equal to 0 and 0 for N=0.

The (r-1)'s Complement of N is defined as rn - rm - N.

Subtraction with r's complement:

The subtraction of two positive numbers (M-N), both are of base r. It is done as follows:
1. Add M to the r's complement of N.
2. Check for an end carry:
(a) If an end carry occurs, ignore it.
(b) If there is no end carry, the negative of the r's complement of the result obtained in step-1 is the required value.

Subtraction with (r-1)'s complement:

The subtraction of two positive numbers (M-N), both are of base r. It is done as follows:
1. Add M to the (r-1)'s complement of N.
2. Check for an end carry:
(a) If an end carry occurs, add 1 to the result obtained in step-1.
(b) If there is no end carry, the negative of the (r-1)'s complement of the result obtained in step-1 is the required value.

For a binary number system the complements are: 2's complement and 1's complement.

2's Complement vs 1's Complement

The only advantage of 1's complement is that it can be calculated easily, just by changing 0s into 1s and 1s into 0s. The 2's complement is calculated in two ways, (i) add 1 to the 1's complement of the number, and (ii) leave all the leading 0s in the least significant positions and keep first 1 unchanged, and then change 0s into 1s and 1s into 0s.

The advantages of 2's complement over 1's complement are:
(i) For subtraction with complements, 2's complement requires only one addition operation, where as for 1's complement requires two addition operations if there is an end carry.
(ii) 1's complement has two arithmetic zeros, all 0s and all 1s.

Binary Logic

Binary logic contains only two discrete values like, 0 or 1, true or false, yes or no, etc. Binary logic is similar to Boolean algebra. It is also called as boolean logic. In boolean algebra there are three basic operations: AND, OR, and NOT.
AND: Given two inputs x, y the expression x.y or simply xy represents "x AND y" and equals to 1 if both x and y are 1, otherwise 0.
OR: Given two inputs x, y the expression x+y represents "x OR y" and equals to 1 if at least one of x and y is 1, otherwise 0.
NOT: Given x, the expression x' represents NOT(x) equals to 1 if x is 0, otherwise 0. NOT(x) is x complement.

Logic Gates

A logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. Because the output is also a logic-level value, an output of one logic gate can connect to the input of one or more other logic gates. The logic gate use binary logic or boolean logic. AND, OR, and NOT are the three basic logic gates of digital systems. Their symbols are shown below.


AND and OR gates can have more than two inputs. The above diagram shows 2 input AND and OR gates. The truth tables of AND, OR, and NOT logic gates are as follows.

Microprocessor Interview Questions - 4

1. What is the size of flag register of 8086 processor?
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2. How many pin IC 8086 is?
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3. What is the Maximum clock frequency of 8086?
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4. What is meant by instruction cycle?
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5. What is Von Neumann architecture?
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6. What is the main difference between 8086 and 8085?
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7. What does EAX mean?
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8. What type of instructions are available in instruction set of 8086?
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9. How is Stack Pointer affected when a PUSH and POP operations are performed?
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10. What are SIM and RIM instructions?
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Microprocessor Interview Questions - 3

1. How many bits processor is 8086?
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2. What are the sizes of data bus and address bus in 8086?
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3. What is the maximum addressable memory of 8086?
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4. How are 32-bit addresses stored in 8086?
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5. What are the 16-bit registers that are available in 8086?
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6. What are the different types of address modes available in 8086?
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7. How many flags are available in flag register? What are they?
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8. Explain the functioning of IP (instruction pointer).
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9. What are the various types of interrupts present in 8086?
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10. How many segments are present in 8086? What are they?
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Digital Design Interview Questions - 5

1. Expand the following: PLA, PAL, CPLD, FPGA.
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2. Implement the functions: X = A'BC + ABC + A'B'C' and Y = ABC + AB'C using a PLA.
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3. What are PLA and PAL? Give the differences between them.
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4. What is LUT?
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5. What is the significance of FPGAs in modern day electronics? (Applications of FPGA.)
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6. What are the differences between CPLD and FPGA.
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7. Compare and contrast FPGA and ASIC digital designing.
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8. Give True or False.
(a) CPLD consumes less power per gate when compared to FPGA.
(b) CPLD has more complexity than FPGA
(c) FPGA design is slower than corresponding ASIC design.
(d) FPGA can be used to verify the design before making a ASIC.
(e) PALs have programmable OR plane.
(f) FPGA designs are cheaper than corresponding ASIC, irrespective of design complexity.
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9. Arrange the following in the increasing order of their complexity: FPGA,PLA,CPLD,PAL.
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10. Give the FPGA digital design cycle.
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Programmable Logic Array

In Digital design, we often use a device to perform multiple applications. The device configuration is changed (reconfigured) by programming it. Such devices are known as programmable devices. It is used to build reconfigurable digital circuits. The following are the popular programmable device

  • PLA - Programmable Logic Array
  • PAL - Programmable Array Logic
  • CPLD - Complex Programmable Logic Device (Click here for more details)
  • FPGA - Field-Programmable Gate Array (Click here for more details)

PLA: Programmable Logic Array is a programmable device used to implement combinational logic circuits. The PLA has a set of programmable AND planes, which link to a set of programmable OR planes, which can then be conditionally complemented to produce an output. This layout allows for a large number of logic functions to be synthesized in the sum of products canonical forms.

Suppose we need to implement the functions: X = A'BC + ABC + A'B'C' and Y = ABC + AB'C. The following figures shows how PLA is configured. The big dots in the diagram are connections. For the first AND gate (left most), A complement, B, and C are connected, which is first minterm of function X. For second AND gate (from left), A, B, and C are connected, which forms ABC. Similarly for A'B'C', and AB'C. Once the minterms are implemented. Now we have to combine them using OR gates to the functions X, and Y.


One application of a PLA is to implement the control over a data path. It defines various states in an instruction set, and produces the next state (by conditional branching).

Note that the use of the word "Programmable" does not indicate that all PLAs are field-programmable; in fact many are mask-programmed during manufacture in the same manner as a ROM. This is particularly true of PLAs that are embedded in more complex and numerous integrated circuits such as microprocessors. PLAs that can be programmed after manufacture are called FPLA (Field-programmable logic array).

FPGA vs ASIC

Definitions

FPGA: A Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a semiconductor device containing programmable logic components called "logic blocks", and programmable interconnects. Logic blocks can be programmed to perform the function of basic logic gates such as AND, and XOR, or more complex combinational functions such as decoders or mathematical functions. For complete details click here.

ASIC: An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an integrated circuit designed for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. Processors, RAM, ROM, etc are examples of ASICs.

FPGA vs ASIC

Speed
ASIC rules out FPGA in terms of speed. As ASIC are designed for a specific application they can be optimized to maximum, hence we can have high speed in ASIC designs. ASIC can have hight speed clocks.

Cost
FPGAs are cost effective for small applications. But when it comes to complex and large volume designs (like 32-bit processors) ASIC products are cheaper.

Size/Area
FPGA are contains lots of LUTs, and routing channels which are connected via bit streams(program). As they are made for general purpose and because of re-usability. They are in-general larger designs than corresponding ASIC design. For example, LUT gives you both registered and non-register output, but if we require only non-registered output, then its a waste of having a extra circuitry. In this way ASIC will be smaller in size.

Power
FPGA designs consume more power than ASIC designs. As explained above the unwanted circuitry results wastage of power. FPGA wont allow us to have better power optimization. When it comes to ASIC designs we can optimize them to the fullest.

Time to Market
FPGA designs will till less time, as the design cycle is small when compared to that of ASIC designs. No need of layouts, masks or other back-end processes. Its very simple: Specifications -- HDL + simulations -- Synthesis -- Place and Route (along with static-analysis) -- Dump code onto FPGA and Verify. When it comes to ASIC we have to do floor planning and also advanced verification. The FPGA design flow eliminates the complex and time-consuming floor planning, place and route, timing analysis, and mask / re-spin stages of the project since the design logic is already synthesized to be placed onto an already verified, characterized FPGA device.


Type of Design
ASIC can have mixed-signal designs, or only analog designs. But it is not possible to design them using FPGA chips.

Customization
ASIC has the upper hand when comes to the customization. The device can be fully customized as ASICs will be designed according to a given specification. Just imagine implementing a 32-bit processor on a FPGA!

Prototyping
Because of re-usability of FPGAs, they are used as ASIC prototypes. ASIC design HDL code is first dumped onto a FPGA and tested for accurate results. Once the design is error free then it is taken for further steps. Its clear that FPGA may be needed for designing an ASIC.

Non Recurring Engineering/Expenses
NRE refers to the one-time cost of researching, designing, and testing a new product, which is generally associated with ASICs. No such thing is associated with FPGA. Hence FPGA designs are cost effective.

Simpler Design Cycle
Due to software that handles much of the routing, placement, and timing, FPGA designs have smaller designed cycle than ASICs.

More Predictable Project Cycle
Due to elimination of potential re-spins, wafer capacities, etc. FPGA designs have better project cycle.

Tools
Tools which are used for FPGA designs are relatively cheaper than ASIC designs.

Re-Usability
A single FPGA can be used for various applications, by simply reprogramming it (dumping new HDL code). By definition ASIC are application specific cannot be reused.

Field-Programmable Gate Array

A Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a semiconductor device containing programmable logic components called "logic blocks", and programmable interconnects. Logic blocks can be programmed to perform the function of basic logic gates such as AND, and XOR, or more complex combinational functions such as decoders or mathematical functions. In most FPGAs, the logic blocks also include memory elements, which may be simple flip-flops or more complete blocks of memory.

Applications

  • ASIC prototyping: Due to high cost of ASIC chips, the logic of the application is first verified by dumping HDL code in a FPGA. This helps for faster and cheaper testing. Once the logic is verified then they are made into ASICs.
  • Very useful in applications that can make use of the massive parallelism offered by their architecture. Example: code breaking, in particular brute-force attack, of cryptographic algorithms.
  • FPGAs are sued for computational kernels such as FFT or Convolution instead of a microprocessor.
  • Applications include digital signal processing, software-defined radio, aerospace and defense systems, medical imaging, computer vision, speech recognition, cryptography, bio-informatics, computer hardware emulation and a growing range of other areas.
Architecture

FPGA consists of large number of "configurable logic blocks" (CLBs) and routing channels. Multiple I/O pads may fit into the height of one row or the width of one column in the array. In general all the routing channels have the same width. The block diagram of FPGA architecture is shown below.


CLB: The CLB consists of an n-bit look-up table (LUT), a flip-flop and a 2x1 mux. The value n is manufacturer specific. Increase in n value can increase the performance of a FPGA. Typically n is 4. An n-bit lookup table can be implemented with a multiplexer whose select lines are the inputs of the LUT and whose inputs are constants. An n-bit LUT can encode any n-input Boolean function by modeling such functions as truth tables. This is an efficient way of encoding Boolean logic functions, and LUTs with 4-6 bits of input are in fact the key component of modern FPGAs. The block diagram of a CLB is shown below.


Each CLB has n-inputs and only one input, which can be either the registered or the unregistered LUT output. The output is selected using a 2x1 mux. The LUT output is registered using the flip-flop (generally D flip-flop). The clock is given to the flip-flop, using which the output is registered. In general, high fanout signals like clock signals are routed via special-purpose dedicated routing networks, they and other signals are managed separately.

Routing channels are programmed to connect various CLBs. The connecting done according to the design. The CLBs are connected in such a way that logic of the design is achieved.

FPGA Programming

The design is first coded in HDL (Verilog or VHDL), once the code is validated (simulated and synthesized). During synthesis, typically done using tools like Xilinx ISE, FPGA Advantage, etc, a technology-mapped net list is generated. The net list can then be fitted to the actual FPGA architecture using a process called place-and-route, usually performed by the FPGA company's proprietary place-and-route software. The user will validate the map, place and route results via timing analysis, simulation, and other verification methodologies. Once the design and validation process is complete, the binary file generated is used to (re)configure the FPGA. Once the FPGA is (re)configured, it is tested. If there are any issues or modifications, the original HDL code will be modified and then entire process is repeated, and FPGA is reconfigured.

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